Samudra Manthan (समुद्रमन्थन)
Samudra Manthan (समुद्रमन्थन) or “churning of the ocean” is a major event which has happened after Devata were defeated by Asuras. Lord Vishnu suggested Devata to this exercise along with Asuras and gain the amrita which will help Devatas in winning back over Asuras.
Ratnas of Samudra Manthan
Following are the Ratnas (gems) which came out from the ocean.
* reference is taken from Bhagavata Purana , Vishnu Purana, Ramayana and Mahabharata only. There are more items mentioned in many other puranas.
Halahala (हलाहल) or Kalakuta ( कालकूटं ) is the name of a poison which came out first from the churning of the ocean.
Halahala started injuring both sides, as its poisonous fumes spread in all directions. Devata and Asuras for help to Brahma who advised them to seek assistance from Shiva. Shiva consumed the drank the entire poison, thus is called as Viṣakaṇṭha (one who held poison in his throat) or Nilakaṇṭha (the one with a blue throat).
निर्मथ्यमानादुदधेरभूद्विषं, महोल्बणं हालहलाह्वमग्रत: – While the ocean was being churned in this way, it first produced a fiercely dangerous poison called Halahala.
Havirdhani ( हविर्धानी )
Kamadhenu (कामधेनु) or Surabhi (सुरभि) the divine cow, was given to the sages so that the ghee from her milk could be used for yajnas and similar rituals.
ममन्थुस्तरसा सिन्धुं हविर्धानी ततोऽभवत् – there appeared a cow known as havirdhani
Uchchaihshravas (उच्चैःश्रवा )
Uchchaihshravas – Uchchaihshravas (उच्चैःश्रवा ) is a seven-headed flying horse, created during the churning of the ocean. It was taken by Bali, the king of the asuras. Uchchaihshravas is said to be white in colour.
तत उच्चै:श्रवा नाम हयोऽभूच्चन्द्रपाण्डुर: ।
तस्मिन्बलि: स्पृहां चक्रे नेन्द्र ईश्वरशिक्षया ॥ Bhagavata Purana – 8.8.3
-Thereafter, a horse named Uccaihsrava, which was as white as the moon, was generated. Bali Maharaja desired to possess this horse, and Indra, the King of heaven, did not protest, for he had previously been so advised by the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
Airavata (ऐरावत) is a divine elephant, characterized by four tusks. He is the “king of elephants” was taken by deity Indra.
तत ऐरावतो नाम वारणेन्द्रो विनिर्गत: – As the next result of the churning, the king of elephants, named Airavata, was generated
Kaustubha ( कौस्तुभ )
Kaustubha (कौस्तुभ ) is a divine gem, which came out of churning of Ocean. Lord Vishnu took this gem.
कौस्तुभाख्यमभूद् रत्नं पद्मरागो महोदधे: – Generated thereafter from the great ocean was the celebrated gems Kaustubha-maṇi
Kalpavriksha ( कल्पवृक्ष )
Kalpavriksha (कल्पवृक्ष ) is a wish-fulfilling divine tree. it is said to be located in Swarga Loka
ततोऽभवत् पारिजात: सुरलोकविभूषणम् ।
पूरयत्यर्थिनो योऽर्थै: शश्वद् भुवि यथा भवान् ॥ Bhagavata Purana – 8.8.6
– Generated next was the Parijata tree, which decorates the celestial planets. O King, as you fulfill the desires of everyone on this planet by fulfilling all ambitions, the Parijata fulfills the desires of everyone.
When Rishi Vishwamitra (विश्वामित्र) was telling Lord Rama the details of Samudra Manthan (समुद्रमन्थन), he said that during the churning of ocean the Apsaras (अप्सरसः) were born out of Samudra.
अप्सु निर्मथनादेव रसास्तस्माद्वरस्त्रिय:।
उत्पेतुर्मनुजश्रेष्ठ तस्मादप्सरसोऽभवन्।। Ramayana, Balakanda 45.33
O Rama, excellent women emerged out of the essence produced by churning of waters. Therefore they are known as Apsarasas (अप्सरस:)
Lakshmi: the goddess of prosperity and wealth, who chose Vishnu as her companion.
ततश्चाविरभूत् साक्षाच्छ्री रमा भगवत्परा – Then there appeared the goddess of fortune, Rama, who is dedicated to Supreme God.
Chandra (चन्द्र )
Chandra (चन्द्र ) or Soma (सोम) is the Hindu god of the Moon. It was accepted by Lord Shiva.
तत: शीतांशुरभवज्जगृहे तं महेश्वर: – Vishnu Purana 1.9.97
– Than came Chandra from the ocean, Shiva accepted the same.
Varuni ( वारुणी )
Varuni – the goddess of wine (sura) and the virgin daughter of Varuna, accepted by the devas. It was taken by Asuras.
अथासीद् वारुणी देवी कन्या कमललोचना ।
असुरा जगृहुस्तां वै हरेरनुमतेन ते – Bhagavata Purana – 8.8.30
Next appeared Vāruṇī, the lotus-eyed goddess. With the permission of the Supreme God, the demons took possession of her.
Dhanvantari ( धन्वन्तरि )
dhanvantri is the “vaidya of the devatas” and also a knower of Ayurveda. He came out of ocean by holding a pot of amrita.
धन्वन्तरिरिति ख्यात आयुर्वेददृगिज्यभाक् ॥ – Bhagavata Purana – 8.8.34
He was very conversant with the science of medicine, and as one of the demigods he was permitted to take a share in sacrifices.